More and more NJ schools are adopting dress codes, according to the Star-Ledger. For instance, after a year of Newark elementary and middle school students wearing uniforms, the district has decided to bring uniforms to high schools—an official said, "It decreased peer pressure of wearing designer clothes, they instead wore the color scheme." And another school board head said, "It allows the principal to walk out in the hallway (and) if they see anything other than a sea of blue, they notice somebody in the hallway that isn't supposed to be there." But the ACLU in NJ argues, "Dress codes and uniforms often deny students the right to express themselves. Our position is that the Constitution protects students' rights, including what they wear, not just what they say and what they write." Only around two dozen of over 600 NJ school districts require uniforms; the NJ School Boards Association's Mike Yaple said, "Some educators swear by the school uniform... But there's been research that says it doesn't lead to better test scores and reduced violence." In 1988, NYC Mayor Ed Koch asked a manufacturer to donate uniforms for a pilot program, prompting the Times to ask for books before uniforms (Koch pointed out they were a donation).